First make a list of factors that areimportant to you: salary, benefits, opportunitiesfor advancement, workplace atmosphere,commuting distance from your home, and so on. Each factor, or point of comparison, is asubtopic.
You can putthe paragraphs in any order you wish - perhapsin the order of importance to you personally. Point-by-Point OrganizationI. IntroductionThesis statement: One way of deciding between job offers isto compare them on important points. Opportunities for advancementD. Workplace atmosphereE. Commuting distance from homeIII.
Conclusion You should discuss eitherthe similarities first or the differences first. You often insert a transition paragraph ortransition sentence between the two blocks. Commute distance from homeB. Opportunities for advancement3. Workplace atmosphereIII. Point-by-Point OrganizationThe number of paragraphs in each blockdepends on the topic. For some topics youmay write about all the similarities in a singleparagraph; for other topics, you may need todiscuss each similarity in a separateparagraph. The same is true for thedifferences. Of course, some topics may haveone paragraph of similarities and severalparagraphs of differences, or vice versa.
These are words that introduce point ofcomparison and points of contrast. It is notsufficient simply to describe each item thatyou are comparing. You must refer back andforth to, for example, Job X and Job Y anduse comparison and contrast signal words toshow what is the same and what is differentabout them. Comparison and ContrastSignal WordsOf course, you should also use transitionsignals, such as first, second, one … another… the final … for example, and in conclusionin addition to these special ones.
The following chart lists some of the wordsand phrases used to discuss similarities. Human workers can detect malfunctions inmachinery; a robot can also. Human workers can detect malfunctions inmachinery; a robot can too. Note: Use a comma when as and just as showcomparison even when the dependent clause followsthe independent clause as in the above example. However, most of the exercise studies suggest that exercise activity alone has only a minor influence on body weight reduction 21 and that mainly the combination of both diet and exercise training leads to significant reduction of body mass.
The frequency and intensity of exercise at public health recommendation levels may explain why exercise does not improve weight loss above that achieved with caloric restriction. Ross et al.
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Nevertheless, to be successful in losing weight, it takes a considerable amount of time and effort. Several studies have examined weight compensation after aerobic exercise training and concluded that the major factors limiting the expected weight loss from aerobic exercise were dietary compensation and a low exercise dose. Accordingly, in contrast to traditional high-volume endurance training at 3—5. In addition, IL-6 mediates anti-inflammatory effects. In addition to exercise interventions, many studies have manipulated the macronutrient content of energy-restricted diets and have reported favorable changes in body composition with many dietary approaches.
Since plasma amino acids change in obese persons on hypocaloric diet, a decrease in TRP—LNAA ratio may further influence serotonin synthesis. As a common consequence, caloric restriction weight loss diets, especially if based upon macronutrient content that is low in carbohydrate and high in protein, lead many dieters to revert to their old eating habits, eating more and using carbohydrate-rich foods, to feel better, which is a frequent cause of weight gain, the so-called yo-yo effect. The decline of TRP levels can be referred to its reduced intake during caloric restriction diet as it was unrelated to the immune activation status of individuals, which remained unchanged.
However, there may be gender differences in the response of plasma TRP to dieting. For example, in women, but not in men, dieting significantly lowered the plasma total and free TRP, indicating that dieting alters brain serotonin function in women, perhaps as a consequence of reducing the availability of plasma TRP. Calorie restriction decreases resting and total energy expenditure.
Thus, weight loss leads to both physiological and psychological changes that promote subsequent weight regain. The path to overcome this tendency for weight regain may involve exercise and dietary strategies that improve adherence, counter the physiological and behavioral adaptations, and reestablish the balance between intake and expenditure.
Argumentative Essay Example: Why Do Dieting and Exercising Matter?
Although many individuals have success in losing weight with diet, weight maintenance is a challenge, regardless of the initial modality used for weight loss. Long-term adherence to restrictive diets is made difficult because of the reduction in energy expenditure that is induced by weight loss but also because of changes in the peripheral hormone signals that increase appetite. Weight loss leads to compensatory changes in the homeostatic processes, including alterations in energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, and hormone pathways involved in appetite regulation that result in increased hunger and energy storage, favoring weight regain.
During weight loss, metabolic requirements decline as a function of i lost body mass, ii reduced consumption of food, and iii increased metabolic efficiency of peripheral tissues. Neuroendocrine signals from the periphery transfer a message of energy depletion and low nutrient availability — favoring signals of hunger — to the hypothalamus and hindbrain that serve as the primary control centers for energy balance regulation.
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The response is that appetite increases and the expenditure of energy declines, named as the energy gap. Another reason why it is so hard to maintain weight loss is the evidence that weight loss may be associated with increased depressive symptoms. Lowered TRP availability during weight loss may limit the production of neurotransmitter serotonin, and this may result in mood disturbances and can, further, diminish serotonin functions ultimately leading to satiety dysregulation and increased food intake.
Free Compare Contrast Essays diet and exercise Essays and Papers | page 4
Following weight loss, compensatory changes include changes in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones, such as increases in orexigenic hormones eg, ghrelin , which stimulate appetite, and decreases in anorexigenic hormones eg, leptin , which inhibit appetite, with the net result that appetite is increased. Some researchers suggest that chronic exercise training does not induce substantial weight loss due to compensatory responses, ie, increase in appetite and food intake,58,59 while some others consistently document that exercise has no influence on appetite or ad libitum food intake.
Staten noted a gender difference in compensatory food intake after exercise, with an increased caloric intake in men but not in women. Furthermore, there may be variability in weight-reduced subjects according to individual physiological characteristics, with clear responders and nonresponders. Acute exercise seems to elevate the activity of TRP 5-monooxygenase, the enzyme involved in the rate-limiting step in the synthesis of serotonin, and so leads to an increase in the concentration of serotonin in some areas of the brain, ie, the brain stem and hypothalamus.
Comparing and Contrasting Low-Carbohydrate and Low-Fat Diets
Although exercise increased the IDO1 activity of macrophages in rats, 78 until now, there is no direct information on the effect of exercise on IDO1 activity in humans. Furthermore, the effects of elevations in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines by exercise on IDO1 activity still remain to be examined. By this way, crossing of KYN through the blood brain barrier and the disruption of neural plasticity are prevented. Because of the increase in plasma TRP and decrease in BCAA, there is a substantial increase in TRP availability to the brain, consequently leading to higher serotonin concentrations in some areas of the brain.
Paradoxically, TRP supplementation can decrease fatigue perception during an aerobic exercise and likewise may improve physical performance, possibly by acting via endogenous opioids.
However, one has to distinguish recreational physical activity activity that people engage in during their free time, that people enjoy, and that people recognize as having socially redeeming values from repeated high level training sessions or intense endurance sports. Although the recreational physical activity performed every other day maximum will exert the above-mentioned positive impact on physiological pathways and parameters, repeated high-level activities could easily turn toward a negative net effect.
Interestingly, intense versus moderate physical activities might also exert contrasting effects on neuropsychiatric circuits Fig. Acute and moderate physical exercises, such as noncompetitive physical exercise such as jogging, increase the activity of GTP-cyclohydrolase-1 GCH1 and contribute to increased productions of pteridine derivatives. Unfortunately, the direct measurements of BH 4 are almost impossible because only very stringent preanalytical measures can limit the oxidative loss of this compound and practically limit its monitoring to laboratory animal or in vitro studies.
Hypothesis of the impact of moderate upper graph versus intensive lower graph physical exercise on the breakdown of tryptophan and the production of 5-hydroxytryptamine serotonin in a healthy individual: Physical exercise evokes a proinflammatory immune response, which is associated with induction of IDO1. In parallel, GCH1 is activated, which leads to the production of BH 4 , the necessary cofactor of several amino acid hydroxylases, including tryptophan 5-hydroxylase. In the moderate situation upper graph , the increase in BH 4 is able to compensate for a possible loss of tryptophan due to IDO1 activity, increased serotonin availability will enhance mood.
High level production of ROS can reduce the life span of BH 4 , and athletes may be faced to insufficient supply with serotonin and low mood. Still, data fit well with existing literature, which shows that acute endurance exercise may increase serotonin availability as was reflected in the periphery by increased concentration of free TRP. One may conclude that moderate physical exercise enhances the production of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, noradrenaline, adrenaline, and dopamine, and can thereby contribute to a heightening of mood.
Other factors such as psychological stress, lack of sleep, and malnutrition can increase the risk of infection when immunity becomes suppressed. This relationship will become especially important when sports activity is performed together with a reduction in food intake as a part of a weight-loss program. It could result in deficiency of the essential amino acids that — because of their relevance for neurotransmitter biosynthesis — may affect the adherence to weight loss programs.
To avoid this, one might consider supplementation with TRP or 5-hydroxy-TRP during such periods to improve weight loss maintenance. Indeed, it has been shown that acute TRP supplementation while dieting could be helpful in improving mood status and preventing uncontrolled weight gain or neuropsychiatric symptoms.
So eating foods with relatively high TRP content, such as turkey meat, cacao, nuts, and other seeds, is considered to increase TRP availability to the brain, albeit slightly, and contributes to some mood enhancement. The obesity epidemic that we are facing today may relate to various aspects, such as increased general availability of energy-rich foods, increased sedentary activity, and decreased occupational physical activity traveling to or from work or school by a means involving physical activity, such as walking and riding a bicycle.
However, obesity is often associated with disturbed mood, which is closely linked with the inability to lose or to stop gaining weight, and a craving for carbohydrates is manifested by many people who are overweight or are becoming so. The disturbed metabolism of TRP in overweight victims might affect the biosynthesis of serotonin and could thereby increase the susceptibility for mood disturbances and carbohydrate craving, increasing the cessation probability of weight reduction programs.
Physical exercise could be helpful in improving mood status and preventing uncontrolled weight gain. However, breakdown of TRP triggered by proinflammatory cascades that are elicited during excessive physical exercise may again relate to the development of neuropsychiatric symptoms, such as fatigue and low mood. Thus, a balance between eating habits and the optimal dose of physical activity needs to be reached. Paper subject to independent expert blind peer review.
All editorial decisions made by independent academic editor.
Upon submission manuscript was subject to anti-plagiarism scanning. Prior to publication all authors have given signed confirmation of agreement to article publication and compliance with all applicable ethical and legal requirements, including the accuracy of author and contributor information, disclosure of competing interests and funding sources, compliance with ethical requirements relating to human and animal study participants, and compliance with any copyright requirements of third parties.
Provenance: the authors were invited to submit this paper. Author Contributions. Conceived and designed the review: BS, DF. Wrote the first draft of the article: BS. Contributed to the writing of the article: BS, DF.
Comparing and Contrasting the Atkins and South Beach Diets Essays
Jointly developed the structure and arguments for the article: BS, DF. Made critical revisions and approved the final version: BS, DF. Both authors reviewed and approved the final article. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Int J Tryptophan Res.